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ESMP (Environmental and Social Management Plan) Herat Electrification Project (HEP)


 
Description ESMP (Environmental and Social Management Plan) Herat Electrification Project (HEP)
Attachments 368e6a39c8f58aa7300c0129ea7a0406.pdf
Publish Date 2017-05-01
Details

 

 

 

 

 

 


ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF AFGHANISTAN

Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS)

 

 

 

Environmental and Social Management Framework - (Part-I)

&

Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF)-Part-II)

For the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Herat Electrification Project

 

 

April 2017

 

Table of Contents

1        Abbreviations/Acronyms. 4

2        Background and Project Context. 8

2.1     Background.. 8

2.2     Project Development Objective(s) 8

2.3     Project Description.. 8

o        Component 1 – Electrification of Four Districts in Herat Province (USD 20.1 million): 8

o        Component 2 – Grid Densification, Extension, and Off-grid pilots in Herat Province (USD 10.9 million): 9

o        Component 3 – Technical Assistance (USD 4 million): 9

3        Need for the Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) 9

4        Objectives of the ESMF. 10

5        Potential Environmental and Social Impacts of the Project Components. 10

Potential social issues include: 11

6        Overview of Environmental and Socio-Economic Baseline of Project site. 12

6.1.1       Socio Economic Background of Herat Province. 12

6.1.2       Physical Environment 13

7        Policy Legal and Regulatory Framework. 14

7.1     WB Operation Policies triggered for the Herat Electrification Project (HEP) 14

7.2     Afghan legal and regulatory framework.. 15

8        Environmental and Social Management Framework. 15

8.1     Objective. 15

8.2     General Principles. 16

8.3     Application of the Safeguards Framework.. 16

8.4     Key Lessons Learned in the implementation of the ESMF in the DABS’s project: 17

8.5     Responsibilities for Safeguard Screening and Mitigation.. 18

8.6     Monitoring and Evaluation: 18

8.7     Capacity Building.. 19

8.8     KEY ELEMENTS OF AN ESMF. 19

8.8.1       Citizen Engagement (CE) 19

8.8.2       Grievance Redress Mechanism.. 20

8.9     Stakeholder Consultation Guideline. 21

8.10        Consultation and Public Disclosure. 23

9        Attachment 1 - Negative List of Sub-project Attributes for the HEP. 24

10      Attachment 2 - Protection of Cultural Property. 25

11      Attachment 3 - Environmental Code of Practice for the HEP. 27

12      Attachment 4 - Procedures for Mine Risk Management. 32

12.1        Procedure for Large Works Using Contractors. 32

13      Attachment 5- draft Terms of Reference for Sub-Project Requiring an ESIA-RPA & ESMP. 34

Table -2:  MONITORING PLAN.. 38

14      Attachment -6 Generic TOR for Cultural HERITAGE MANAGEMENT Plan.. 39

15      Attachment 7: Sample Grievance Registration Form.. 43

16      Attachment 8.  Scheduling and Reporting by DABS Environmental and Social Safeguards Staff  44

Attachment 9 – Summary of Proceedings from Public consultation on ESMF  and RPF. 45

PART- 2. 54

Resettlement Policy Framework. 54

List of Acronyms. 57

Definitions of words and phrases used in the RPF. 58

Preface. 61

17      RESETTLEMENT POLICY FRAMEWORK. 62

Background.. 63

Project Development Objective(s) 63

Project Description.. 63

The Status of the Herat Electrification Project. 64


 

1         Abbreviations/Acronyms

CDC                     Community Development Council

CHMP                  Cultural Heritage Management Plan

EC                        Environmental Clearance

EHS                      Environmental Health & Safety

EIA                      Environmental Impact Assessment

ESIA                    Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

ESMF                   Environmental Social Management Framework

ESMP                   Environmental & Social Management Plan

ESS                      Environmental and Social Safeguards

GRC                     Grievance Redress Committee

GRM                    Grievance Redress Mechanism

MACA                 Mine Action Centre for Afghanistan

NEPA                   National Environmental Protection Agency

NGO                    Non-Governmental Organization

OP/BP                  Operation Procedures/Bank Policy

O&M                    Operation and Maintenance

PAP                      Project Affected Person

RAP                     Resettlement Action Plan

RPF                      Resettlement Policy Framework

ToR                      Terms of References

WB                       World Bank


 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

Introduction

Project Background: The Herat Electrification Project is to provide electricity to households, institutions, and businesses in the selected areas of Herat Province, Afghanistan, with focus on the districts of Chesht, Hobai, Karrokh and Pashtun-Zarghoon of Herat Province. The Project is expected to contribute to Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat’s (DABS) overall objectives of alleviating poverty and ensuring inclusivity of access to electricity for all segments of the population.

 

Project Objective and Project Components: The overall project will benefit the local population in these areas by providing grid electricity.

 

The proposed HEP has been rated Category-B under the World Bank Operational Policy on     Environmental Assessment (OP4.01).  The Herat Electrification Project triggers the World Bank’s Operational Policy (OP) 4.01 (Environmental Assessment), OP 4.11 (Physical Culture Resources), OP 4.12 (Involuntary Resettlement), and.

The proposed project has 3 components:  Component 1, Electrification of Four Districts in Herat Province (USD 20.1 million); Component 2, Grid Densification, Extension, and Off-grid pilots in Herat Province (USD 10.9 million; Component 3, Technical Assistance (USD 4 million):

 

 

Project Area: The HEP will be implemented in Herat Province and includes Chesht, Hobai, Karrokh and Pashtun-Zarghoon districts.

 

Implementation Arrangements: The implementing agency is Da Afghanistan Brishna Shirkat (DABS). The Chief Operating Officer (COO) of DABS will have overall responsibility for ensuring compliance with the requirements set out in the ESMF and RPF. The environmental and social safeguards officers assigned to the Herat Electrification Project (HEP) will have direct responsibility for overseeing the implementation of the project’s ESMF & RPF provisions during preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of all investment activities.  

 

The Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF)

The sub-projects proposed for World Bank funding HEP have been identified, the final project sites and the alignment of the transmission and distribution lines will be concluded after detailed survey and design is prepared. In this context, this Environment and Social Management Framework has been developed to manage and mitigate any potential negative impacts that may arise as a result of the proposed projects. The ESMF provides DABS with a procedure for determining the appropriate level of environmental and social assessment required for the sub-projects. Further, it guides the power utility in preparing the necessary environmental and social mitigation tools/measures for the sub-projects during operations phases.

 

The objectives of ESMF are as follows:

Establish the legal framework, procedures, and methods for environmental and social planning, review, approval and implementation investments to be financed;

  • Identify roles and responsibilities, including reporting procedures and monitoring and evaluation;
  • Identify capacity/or training needs for different stakeholders to ensure better implementation of the provisions in the ESMF and also in the sub-project ESMPs and;
  • Identify funding requirements and resources to ensure effective implementation of the framework.

 

 

The present report entitled “Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) and Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) for the Herat Electrification Project (HEP)” aims to help mitigate any negative impact of the project by providing a screening tools and guidelines to be applied to minimize potential impacts.

 

Potential Environmental & Social Impacts: It is not anticipated that the proposed activities under component one will have large scale adverse social and environmental impacts. The project is expected to have moderate social and environmental impacts during construction and operation of the infrastructure that will supply the power. Social impacts would be caused by temporary and/or partial permanent loss of land and other assets. 

 

Policy, Legal and Regulatory Framework

More specifically, the ESMF for the HEP aims to establish the legal framework, procedures, and methods for environmental and social planning, review, approval and implementation investments to be financed. The management and mitigation of identified environmental and social impacts above will be carried out in accordance with relevant national laws, rules and policies. In addition, the safeguards requirements of WB as funding agency is also considered in the management procedures for addressing environmental and social issues.

 

In addition, the regulatory framework identifies roles and responsibilities, including reporting procedures and monitoring and evaluation under the HEP. It identifies capacity and training needs for different stakeholders to ensure better implementation of the provisions in the ESMF and in the sub-project Environmental and Social Management Plans (ESMPs) and Resettlement Action Plans (where needed). And it also identify the funding requirements and resources allocation to ensure effective implementation of the framework.

 

The ESMF also includes guidelines for identifying and assessing the impacts of potential investments on existing heritage structures and sites, which will be applied for this project.  Systematic involvement of local people throughout the planning and implementation of investment project in all four districts will underpin the identification and implementation of any mitigation measures to be included in any specific plans for sub-projects. The sub-project activities are expected to improve local people’s living standards through providing investments in all four selected districts. Selection of routes, particularly for installation of a new 110 kV transmission line, and four 110/20 kV substations will be screened for land disputes in order to avoid the situation where investments would fuel such disputes.

 

The ESMF complies with the World Bank’s Operational Policy on Environmental Assessments (OP/BP 4.01), preparation and public disclosure of an ESMF and RPF is required by World Bank appraisal of the HEP project as it is adopting a programmatic approach consisting of investment activities that could not be predicted during project appraisal.  This is to ensure that the proposed project has concrete procedures and processes in place to avoid, minimize, and/or mitigate potential adverse environmental and social impacts.

 

Preparation and review of Safeguards documents:  The ESMF contains guidelines on the preparation of site-specific Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP), a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) and a Cultural Heritage and Management Plan (CHMP).  The Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) also includes a set of screening tools to guide preparation of ESIA for the 25km transmission line.

A Cultural Heritage Management Plan (CHMP) will be developed for any sub project located within areas of existing heritage structures in order to ensure compliance with the Law on Preservation of Afghanistan’s Historical and Cultural Heritage (2004) and the World Bank’s Policy on Physical and Cultural Resources (OP/WB4.11).

Citizen Engagement (CE): Within the HEP CE is based on interaction and dialogue between government and citizens in all selected districts. It is anticipated that initial stakeholder consultations at the outset of sub projects will be enhanced throughout project implementation to facilitate learning and feedbacks and smooth adjustments to sub projects as necessary.  Key elements of citizen engagement within the HEP include stakeholder consultation, the effective implementation of a Grievance Redress Mechanism and communities’ feedback on draft design for all supported activities. 

 

The safeguards documents also contain in its second part a Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF). The RPF gives guidance on how to handle situations where infrastructure investments affect private land/asset and people’s livelihoods. The RPF sets out procedures for managing land acquisition, asset loss, and resettlement will be applicable to HEP.  The ESMF will contain a summary of the consultations held with local stakeholders in Herat informing them about the project and the purpose of the ESMF.

 


 

Herat Electrification Project

 

2         Background and Project Context

2.1         Background

Grid supply dominates for urban households with 89 percent reporting grid access, but it represents the primary supply source for only 11 percent of electrified rural households.  Rural areas are dominated by mini grids and stand-alone systems, based primarily on solar and small hydropower plants. Over 5,000 micro hydro plants have been constructed under the National Solidarity Program (NSP) to provide supply to small groups of households in rural communities. Grid access across Afghanistan is also quite heterogeneous across the country’s 34 provinces (or “wilayat”), with some areas having no connections to the grid while others are well served – especially in urban areas.  Herat, which has direct links to both Iran and Turkmenistan, enjoys a high level of connections in the capital city.  However, areas outside the capital have little or no grid connection, despite the fact that the province as a whole has a reliable and ample source of electricity supply. 

 

Households dominate the customer base, representing almost 93 percent of grid connections, while commercial customers represent just under 7 percent and government agencies less than 1 percent.  Total supply from the grid in 2015-16 was 4,773 GWh, of which 3,767 or 80 percent was imports. Uzbekistan was the main source of external supply (1,284 GWh), followed closely by Turkmenistan (1,184 GWh).  Iran supplied 827 GWh and Tajikistan supplied 471 GWh.  Domestic generation totaled 1,007 GWh, and was almost exclusively (96 percent) hydro.

 

2.2          Project Development Objective(s)

 

The project development objective (PDO) is to provide electricity to households, institutions, and businesses in the selected areas of Herat Province, Afghanistan. The proposed Project is expected to contribute to Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat’s (DABS) overall objectives of alleviating poverty and ensuring inclusivity of access to electricity for all segments of the population. The Project is closely aligned with the Government’s “New National Priority Program”, especially the Citizen Charter’s mission of providing electricity services and the National Infrastructure Plan.[1] The Project is also consistent with the first and third pillars – ‘Building Strong and Accountable Institutions’ which aims to build the capacity and self-reliance of government institutions and improving service delivery, and ‘Social Inclusion’ which is aimed at reducing differences among the population in terms of access to services and vulnerability to shocks.

 

As the Herat Electrification Project is financed by the World Bank, it is also closely aligned with the 2016 Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Afghanistan covering the period from 2017 to 2020, especially with the second of three pillars of the Framework, ‘Supporting Inclusive Growth’.

2.3         Project Description

The Project comprises the following components:

  • Component 1 – Electrification of Four Districts in Herat Province (USD 20.1 million):

This component will support investments for building a new 110 kV transmission line, and four 110/20 kV substations and medium and low voltage distribution networks in four districts of Herat Province (Chesht, Hobai, Karrokh and Pashtun-Zarghoon).

 

  • Component 2 – Grid Densification, Extension, and Off-grid pilots in Herat Province (USD 10.9 million):

This component will extend grid electricity supply to other parts of Herat Province and test solar off-grid pilots.  Specific sub-projects will be identified during project implementation and evaluated based on cost effectiveness (total cost of the sub-project vs incremental demand served). 

 

  • Component 3 – Technical Assistance (USD 4 million):

This component will finance technical assistance to insure timely and quality completion of the Project, to enhance DABS capacity in procurement, engineering studies and project management, to enhance financial planning for the utility, and to prepare a foundation for further extension and integration of the grid in Herat Province.

3         Need for the Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF)

To comply with the World Bank’s Operational Policy on Environmental Assessments (OP/BP 4.01), preparation and disclosure of an ESMF and RPF is required by World Bank appraisal of the HEP project as it is adopting a programmatic approach consisting of investment activities that could not be predicted before project appraisal.  This is to ensure that the proposed project has concrete procedures and processes in place to avoid, minimize, and/or mitigate potential adverse environmental and social impacts. The HEP has been rated Category B under the World Bank Operational Policy on Environmental Assessment (OP4.01).  The Herat Electrification Project triggers the World Bank’s Operational Policy (OP) 4.01 (Environmental Assessment), OP 4.11 (Physical Culture Resources), and OP 4.12 (Involuntary Resettlement).

 

For the sake of simplicity, DABS has updated this ESMF from the ongoing “Afghanistan Power System Development Project” (APSDP, TF093513-AF) project, which has similar scope in terms of Social and Environmental impacts. In case of any subproject involving land/asset impacts, the RPF prepared by DABS for the “DABS Planning and Capacity Support Project” (DABS TA, TF0A2026) is applicable to Herat Electrification Project (HEP). The RPF is an integral part of this document.

 

The purpose of the RPF is to clarify resettlement principles and compensation, as well as organizational arrangements, to be applied as necessary by future sub projects.  Strict adherence to the RPF procedures will not only ensure consistency in land acquisition and resettlement planning but also develop the capacities of the implementing and supervising agencies.

The Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) and RPF also includes a set of screening tools and guidelines to guide preparation of ESIA, ESMPs, RAPs, and CHMP.

 

A Cultural Heritage Management Plan (CHMP) will be developed for any sub project located within areas of existing heritage structures in order to ensure compliance with the Law on Preservation of Afghanistan’s Historical and Cultural Heritage (2004) and the World Bank’s Policy on Physical and Cultural Resources (OP/WB4.11).

 

 

4         Objectives of the ESMF

The Objective of the ESMF is to:

 

(i)     Establish the legal framework, procedures, and methods for environmental and social planning, review, approval and implementation investments to be financed;

(ii)   Identify roles and responsibilities, including reporting procedures and monitoring and evaluation;

(iii) Identify capacity/or training needs for different stakeholders to ensure better implementation of the provisions in the ESMF and also in the sub-project ESMPs and;

(iv) Identify funding requirements and resources to ensure effective implementation of the framework.

 

5         Potential Environmental and Social Impacts of the Project Components

The project is expected to have moderate social and environmental impacts. Social impacts would be caused by temporary and/or partial permanent loss of land and other assets.  Selection of routes, particularly for installation of a new 110 kV transmission line, and four 110/20 kV substations will be screened for land disputes in order to avoid the situation where investments would fuel such disputes. The RPF prepared by DABS for the DABS Planning and Capacity Support Project (P131228), sets out procedures for managing land acquisition, asset loss, and resettlement will be applicable to HEP. The ESMF also includes guidelines for identifying and assessing the impacts of potential investments on existing heritage structures and sites, which will be applied for this project.  Systematic involvement of local people throughout the planning and implementation of investment project in all four districts will underpin the identification and implementation of any mitigation measures to be included in ESMPs, CHMP and RAPs. The sub-project activities are expected to improve local people’s living standards through providing investments in all four selected districts.

 

The majority of environmental and social impacts of power projects are generally related to generation development and rehabilitation of the existing power supply system in the selected sites of the Herat Province. Because the project will mostly finance the development and expansion of distribution systems, implementation of the project components is not expected to involve any significant adverse environmental or social impacts.  Specifically:

 

  • The rehabilitation and expansion of distribution networks in the cities/populated areas involves the construction of substations, one transmission line (about 25 km), and distribution networks (erecting poles, stringing lines, and installing transformers) at current locations or along existing roads, streets or lanes.  While some disruptions in day-to-day activities during construction may be inevitable, these impacts will be temporary and reversible in nature. The Herat Electrification Project may involve some minor land acquisition or acquisition of assets due to the project activities. The land for three substations is governmental land. The land for the fourth substation - Karokh Substation - is communal land and has been donated by the community. The land acquisition documents are being fully and carefully documented by Herat DABS.
  •  
  • The development of substations and transmission at Herat targeted locations will involve procurement and all necessary construction and development activities based on detailed designs and an implementation plan to be provided by the contractor.

Most potential environmental impacts are related to siting of facilities, construction activities and the possible presence of land mines.  Assessment and mitigation of potential impacts will be addressed through the application of environmental codes of practices, mine risk and safety procedures.

Potential social issues include:

 

  • Land acquisition: Some minor land acquisition (temporary and/or partial permanent loss of land and other assets) might be expected for the development of substations and electricity transmission, (including right-of-way). The risk of involuntary resettlement or land acquisition is therefore considered to be low.
  • Risk of social constraints during construction period: There might be some risks of increased social constraints related to the development and planning of the substation and transmission work of the project, as well the hiring of contractors and their relations with the local residents.
  • Labor influx risks: Labor influx related risks are expected to be low, because the labors are likely to be largely locally recruited. It will also include the employees’ Code of Conduct (CoC) which will be applicable to all sub-projects. The site specific ESMPs will also include mitigation measures for consideration of labor camps.
  • Risk of disruption to social patterns and safety issues:  For power lines passing through populated areas, the construction of sub-stations could disrupt regular patterns or introduce safety concerns for activities such as water fetching by women and children.  In these cases, local consultations with women should identify such concerns and design measures, such as marked crossings and speed reduction measures will be introduced.
  • Exclusion zones: The exclusion zones should be enforced to avoid accidents especially with children playing around the machinery. Risks of working at heights during tower construction should be managed and Health & Safety risks associated with transport of equipment, etc. should also be appropriately managed. Details will need to be part of the Health & Safety Plans prepared and implemented by the Contractors. The supervision engineer supervises compliance with the Health & Safety Plans.
  •  
  • Local employment:  Employment benefits are expected from the construction of substations and extension of networks,. The local population will also receive electricity as newly connected customers, thus helping improve on their business opportunities (productive uses).
  • Health and Safety aspects: the contractor needs to prepare and implement a Health and Safety Plan in compliance with OHASAS 18001:2007 and employ a Health and Safety specialist with experience in OHASAS 18001:2007 (also the Supervision Engineer should employ a similar specialist as the environmental specialists in general don’t know anything about Health & Safety). The Contractors should establish a Health & Safety system, which should include Method Statements of activities, Health & Safety risks of these activities and a Permit-to-Work system. This is a system applied worldwide and is in compliance with OHSAS 18001:2007.   

 

The cultural heritage impacts envisaged may relate to the construction of a new 110 kV transmission line and distribution networks in four districts of Herat Province, where lesser-known monuments may be present. While reviews indicate that no direct impacts on archeological, burial or historical sites are to be expected, the project will institute “chance find” procedures to ensure the protection of such sites if found when opening borrow pits and material sites.

The ESMF provides guidelines for identifying and assessing the impacts of potential investments on existing heritage structures and sites (see in Annex 2).  ToR for assessing impact on heritage sites and for preparing a CHMP are included as annex 6.

A Cultural Heritage Management Plan (CHMP) will be developed for any sub project located within areas of existing heritage site in order to ensure compliance with the Law on Preservation of Afghanistan’s Historical and Cultural Heritage (2004) and the World Bank’s Policy on Physical and Cultural Resources (OP/WB4.11).

 

The ESMF will also guide how to conduct the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) for the 25km transmission line during implementation stage. Detailed terms of reference for such an ESIA are annexed to this ESMF- see annex 5. Major potential issues in respect of the erection of transmission line relates to interface with the local communities and ensuring safety.  These issues are manageable as evident from a number of Bank assisted projects in Afghanistan.  In addition, the ESMF contains an Environmental Code of Practices (ECOP) see attachement-3, where the Contractor implementing the civil works will be required to ensure that environmental impacts and health and safety issue if any, be adequately mitigated at both construction and operation stages. The Contractor’s obligations vis-à-vis environmental management will be included in the contract.

 

6         Overview of Environmental and Socio-Economic Baseline of Project site

6.1.1        Socio Economic Background of Herat Province

Herat Province is located at the western part of Afghanistan. The total population of the province is about 1,780,000, making it the second most populated province in Afghanistan only after Kabul Province. The population is multi-ethnic but largely Persian speaking. The majority of which live in rural parts. Herat (Pashto/Dari: هرات) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan with GPS points 34° 0′ 0″ N, 62° 0′ 0″ E. Together with Badghis, Farah, and Ghor provinces, it makes up the southwestern region of Afghanistan. Its primary city and administrative capital is Herat City. The province of Herat is divided into 17 districts and is comprised of over 1,000 villages.

 

Herat province shares a common border with Iran in the West and Turkmenistan in the North, making it an important trading province. The proposed Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline (TAPI) is expected to pass through Herat from Turkmenistan to Pakistan and India in the south. The province has two airports, one is the Herat International Airport in the capital of Herat, and the other is at the Shindand Air Base, which is one of the largest military bases in Afghanistan. The Salma Dam, which is fed by the Hari River and started operation in 2016, is also located in this province.

 

Persian-speaking Tajiks form the majority, according to Afghanistan's Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development". Around three quarters (77%) of the population of Herat lives in rural districts while just under a quarter (23%) lives in urban areas. Around 50% of the population is male and 50% is female. Dari and Pashtu are spoken by 98% of the population and 97.7% of the villages. Languages spoken by the remaining population are Turkmeni and Uzbeki. Herat province also has a population of Kuchis or nomads whose numbers vary in different seasons.

 

The province is home to 90% of Afghanistan's Saffron production (a US$12 million industry in 2014). In 2015 the World Bank noted that saffron cultivation had provided Herat Province's farmers a steady source of income, jobs for both men and women, and a decreased dependency on poppy cultivation.

 

With international borders to Iran and Turkmenistan and an international airport trade could potentially play an important part in the economy of Herat Province. Due to the lack of urbanization in Herat Province, around 75% of the population lives in rural areas and economic activity is correspondingly heavily reliant on agriculture and horticulture production (saffron, rugs, cumin, marble, animal skins and wool) with around 82% of economic activity coming from these fields in 2011. Marble manufacturing and light industry comprised the remaining areas of economic activity.

6.1.2        Physical Environment

Climate, Water and Hydrology:  Herat has a cold semi-arid climate. Precipitation is very low, and mostly falls in winter. Although Herat is approximately 240m, (790 ft.) lower than Kandahar, the summer climate is more temperate, and the climate throughout the year is far from disagreeable. From May to September, the wind blows from the northwest with great force. The winter is tolerably mild; snow melts as it falls, and even on the mountains does not lie long. Three years out of four it does not freeze hard enough for the people to store ice. The eastern reaches to the Hari Rud river, including the rapids, which are mostly frozen during the winter.

Climate data for Herat

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Record high °C (°F)

24.4
(75.9)

27.6
(81.7)

31.0
(87.8)

37.8
(100)

39.7
(103.5)

44.6
(112.3)

50.0
(122)

42.7
(108.9)

39.3
(102.7)

37.0
(98.6)

30.0
(86)

26.5
(79.7)

50
(122)

Average high °C (°F)

9.1
(48.4)

11.9
(53.4)

17.9
(64.2)

24.0
(75.2)

29.6
(85.3)

35.0
(95)

36.7
(98.1)

35.1
(95.2)

31.4
(88.5)

25.0
(77)

17.8
(64)

12.0
(53.6)

23.79
(74.83)

Daily mean °C (°F)

2.9
(37.2)

5.5
(41.9)

10.2
(50.4)

16.3
(61.3)

22.1
(71.8)

27.2
(81)

29.8
(85.6)

28.0
(82.4)

22.9
(73.2)

16.1
(61)

8.8
(47.8)

4.7
(40.5)

16.21
(61.18)

Average low °C (°F)

−2.9
(26.8)

−0.6
(30.9)

3.8
(38.8)

9.1
(48.4)

13.3
(55.9)

18.2
(64.8)

21.2
(70.2)

19.2
(66.6)

13.2
(55.8)

7.4
(45.3)

1.0
(33.8)

−1.4
(29.5)

8.46
(47.23)

Record low °C (°F)

−26.7
(−16.1)

−20.5
(−4.9)

−13.3
(8.1)

−2.3
(27.9)

0.8
(33.4)

9.7
(49.5)

14.7
(58.5)

8.4
(47.1)

1.3
(34.3)

−5.6
(21.9)

−12.8
(9)

−22.7
(−8.9)

−26.7
(−16.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches)

51.6
(2.031)

44.8
(1.764)

55.1
(2.169)

29.2
(1.15)

9.8
(0.386)

0.0
(0)

0.0
(0)

0.0
(0)

0.0
(0)

1.7
(0.067)

10.9
(0.429)

35.8
(1.409)

238.9
(9.405)

Average rainy days

6

8

8

7

2

0

0

0

0

1

3

5

40

Average snowy days

2

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

6

Average relative humidity (%)

72

69

62

56

45

34

30

30

34

42

55

67

49.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours

149.3

153.5

202.5

235.7

329.6

362.6

378.6

344.8

323.2

274.0

235.0

143.1

3,131.9

Source: NOAA (1959-1983)[2]

Topography: The topography in the targeted area of Herat province consists mainly of rangeland (grassland / low shrubs). There is some cropland along the Hari Rud river while orchard are found  only in Obe which can be easily avoided or the impacts are minimized when the grid is to be extended. Around the city of Herat, including in Karokh, the soil is characterized by rock outcrop, agricultural land and barren land. All efforts will be made to circumvent areas of agricultural use.

 

Air pollution: During the construction phase, the area under rehabilitation and construction including substations may result in dust or other form of air pollution. All the activities which may impact on human health including environmental health and hygiene and related issues can be mitigated with the application of site specific ESMPs. The ESMP will also carry specific a section on negative list and labor health and working safety provisions.

 

Noise: This framework prohibits generation of unnecessary or unusual noise which annoys, disturbs, and may pose, health or safety concerns on individuals and the surrounding environments. However, most of the intervention under Herat Electrification Project (HEP) is not sought to create substantial noise. Physical activities including rehabilitation and transmission works will not create extensive amount of noise. Construction of substations, transmission and distribution of electricity in Herat province may generate some amount of noise from the construction machines and construction workers. The amount of the noise and other pollution will be minimized or mitigated by site specific ESMP.

 

 

7         Policy Legal and Regulatory Framework

7.1         WB Operation Policies triggered for the Herat Electrification Project (HEP)

 

Safeguard Policies Triggered by the Project

Yes

No            

 

Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01)

[X]

[ ]

 

Natural Habitats (OP/BP 4.04)

[ ]

[X]

 

Pest Management (OP 4.09)

[ ]

[X]

 

Physical Cultural Resources (OP/BP 4.11)

[X]

[X]

 

Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12)

[X]

[ ]

 

Indigenous Peoples (OP/BP 4.10)

[ ]

[X]

 

Forests (OP/BP 4.36)

[ ]

[X]

 

Safety of Dams (OP/BP 4.37)

[]

[X]

 

Projects in Disputed Areas (OP/BP 7.60)

[ ]

[X]

 

Projects on International Waterways (OP/BP 7.50)

[]

[X]

 

 

  1. Environmental Assessment (EA OP/BP 4.01):  The Environment Assessment safeguard is triggered due to environmental and social impacts from the civil works planned under the proposed HEP project.

 

  1. Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12): The WB OP/BP 4.12 is triggered as the Herat Electrification Project will support investments in some densely populated areas and the activities will cause some minor temporary and/or partial permanent land acquisition.

 

  1. Physical Cultural Resources (OP/BP 4.11).: In the possible event that a sub project may encounter archaeological/historic and other ‘chance finds’ during implementation. Some of these areas are rich in physical cultural resources.

7.2         Afghan legal and regulatory framework

 

  1. The primary relevant laws and legislations framing social and environmental issues which need to be considered in relation to distribution investment projects are:
    1. The Constitution of Afghanistan (2004)
    2. The Environment Law of Afghanistan (2007)
    3. National Land Policy (2007)
    4. Land Management Law (2017)
    5. Land Acquisition Law (2017)
    6. Law on the Preservation of Afghanistan’s Historical and Cultural Heritages (2004)

 

8         Environmental and Social Management Framework

8.1         Objective

The overall purpose of the ESMF is to ensure that investments and activities to be financed under the HEP project will not create adverse impacts on the local environment and local communities and that any residual and/or unavoidable impacts will be adequately mitigated in line with national regulations and the WB’s safeguard policies.

 

The key objective of this Framework is to ensure that all activities under the Project will:

 

  • Protect human health;
  • Prevent or compensate any loss of livelihood;
  • Prevent environmental degradation as a result of either individual sub-projects or their cumulative effects;
  • Enhance positive environmental and social outcomes; and
  • Ensure compliance with World Bank safeguard policies.
  •  Compliance with World Bank Safeguard policies

 

The Environment and Social Safeguards Framework is applicable for all civil works under all contracts associated with the HEP Program (including Herat Electrification Project activities). Specifically, for the Project Components relating to rehabilitation and expansion of distribution systems in Chesht, Obe Karrokh and Pashtun-Zarghoon Herat Electrification Project, following Framework guidelines apply:

 

  • Environmental Criterion for Site Selection;
  • Environmental Codes of Practice (ECOP);
  • Land Acquisition, entitlements and compensation;
  • Procedures for the protection of cultural property; and
  • Mine risk clearance procedures.

8.2         General Principles

 

The Framework is based on the following principles:

 

                       (i)      The proposed project will support multiple components – the detailed designs of which may not be known at appraisal.  To ensure the effective application of the World Bank’s safeguard policies, the Framework provides guidance on the approach to be taken during implementation.

                     (ii)      All proposed components will be screened to ensure that the environmental and social risks can be adequately addressed through the application of standardized guidelines.

                   (iii)      Project design will aim to maintain regional balance, and equity between genders, and ethnic and religious groups, considering variations in population density.  Employment opportunities within the projects will be available on an equal basis to all, based on professional competence, irrespective of gender, or ethnic or religious group.  In all projects, which require consultations with local communities or beneficiaries, consultations will be conducted to elicit the views of both the male and the female population.

                   (iv)      Consultation and disclosure requirements will be simplified to meet the special needs of this project.  Prior to approval by the World Bank Board, this Environmental and Social Management Framework and RPF were disclosed in country in Dari and Pashto, and in the World Bank the Bank’s external website.

8.3         Application of the Safeguards Framework

 

The site-specific ESMP to be guided by this framework will be included in all works contracts and its proper implementation will be the responsibility of the Contractor(s) with oversight from DABS. The provisions of the safeguards framework will be specifically applied to the project’s sub-components as follows:

 

Component

Assessment and mitigation of impacts

Development and expansion of Chesht, Hobai, Karrokh and Pashtun-Zarghoon Substations and transmission

 

Development and Extension of Chesht, Hobai, Karrokh and Pashtun-Zarghoon Substations and transmission.

Guidelines for:

  • environmental codes of practice
  • Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP)
  • Resettlement Action Plan (RAP)
  • procedures for the protection of cultural property
  • mine risk procedures

Development and Extension of Chesht, Hobai, Karrokh and Pashtun-Zarghoon Substations and transmission.

Contractor will ensure mitigation of environmental impacts, if any.

Sector wide social and  environmental management

Capacity Assessment and Building for Social and Environmental Assessment (separate, parallel technical assistance activity)

 

The selection, design, contracting, monitoring, and evaluation of the components will be consistent with the following guidelines:

  • A negative list of characteristics that would make a proposed component ineligible for support, as indicated in Attachment 1;
  • Procedures for the protection of cultural property, including the chance discovery of archaeological artifacts, and unrecorded graveyards and burial sites, provided in Attachment 2.
  • Generic codes of practices for environmental management of power transmission and distribution systems, provided in Attachment 3.
  • The requirement that confirmation is received through the Regional Mine Action Center that areas to be accessed during reconstruction and rehabilitation activities have been certified as low risk (see guidelines in Attachment 4).
  • Draft Terms of Reference for Sub-Project requiring an ESIA-RAP & ESMP, provided in Attachment 5
  • Generic TOR for Cultural Heritage Management Plan (CHMP), provided in Attachment 6
  • Sample Grievance Registration Form, provided in Attachment 7
  • Scheduling and Reporting by DABS Environmental and Social Safeguards Staff provided in Attachment 8 
  • Summary of Proceeding from Public consultation on ESMF, provided in Attachment 9
  •  

 

8.4         Key Lessons Learned in the implementation of the ESMF in the DABS’s project:

 

One of the key lessons learned is the fact that under the ongoing APSDP that supports the same activities as HEP, have had caused some very limited land/asset impacts, such as impact to crop, and very limited acquisition for pole location, etc. the reports to date show, the  installation of distribution networks took place within the available right-of-way. The records on land acquisition also show, affected families requested no compensation, because the impacts on private land/asset were minor.  

 

Another key lesson learned was the installation of distribution networks, which took much longer to implement than what was initially thought. Communities were unhappy and requested a number of times to start utilization of power into the system soon. There were little effort made to maintain appropriate communication to keep the beneficiaries communities inform about the exact schedule and functionality of the distribution networks.

To maintain good communication the contractor will hire liaison officers who can speak the local language.

 

8.5         Responsibilities for Safeguard Screening and Mitigation

The responsibility for implementation of the project lies with Afghanistan’s power utility Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS), who have ample experience of implementing World Bank supported projects. An independent and autonomous company, DABS has a higher capacity in environmental and soci